医学领域研究中提到的生命质量一般指健康相关的生命质量（Health Related Quality of Life）。作为一项评价健康的手段，生命质量能够从生物、心理、社会等多个角度来反映个体或群体的健康状态。
80年代以后，生命质量被广泛应用于临床医学、预防医学、药学、卫生管理学、社会学、伦理学和经济学等领域。自1985年起，美国食品药品监督管理局在接受新药时要求递交药品对患者生命质量和生存时间影响的资料。1991年法国、德国、意大利、荷兰和瑞典等国家发起成立了国际生活质量评价组织（IQOLA）。1995年比利时布鲁塞尔自由大学的教授倡导成立了国际生命质量学术交流大会发行相应的生命质量研究期刊Quality of Life Research，并建立了一系列实用理论和测量评价方法。亚洲地区的研究主要集中在日本、韩国和泰国、新加坡等东南亚国家。
（1）36条目简明健康量表（Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, SF-36），由美国波士顿健康研究所开发， 包括生理功能、身份角色限制、躯体疼痛、总体健康、活力、社会功能、情感职能、情绪角色限制和健康变化9个纬度，共计36条。
（2）12条目简明健康量表（Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, SF-12），5-10分钟完成，适用于临床。
The SF-12v1 questionnaire is a multipurpose generic QOL questionnaire evolved from the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The SF-12v1 questionnaire consists of 12 questions that measure 4 domains (physical, functional, emotional, and social) and 8 subscales (physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health). The 8 subscales of this tool can be summarized into 2 indices: the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary.
（3）欧洲肿瘤研究与治疗组织生命质量C30量表（European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire-C30）
（4）肿瘤治疗功能评价量表[Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) scale，FACT-G]
Previous studies have found some demographic (age) and clinical (clinical stage, operation type, and weight stabilization) factors affect QOL in PC patients.
Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics were at significantly higher risk of having lower PCS (odds ratio [95%CI], 1.69 [1.26-2.26]; P < 0.001) and lower MCS (1.66 [1.24-2.23]; P < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with stage III (1.80 [1.10-2.94]; P = 0.02) and stage IV (2.32 [1.50-3.59]; P < 0.001) were more likely to have lower PCS than were patients diagnosed with stage I. Other determinants included sex, age, drinking, smoking, education level, comorbidities and time since diagnosis.
QOL after diagnosis is a significant prognostic indicator for patients with PDAC.
Modified factors: smoking and alcohol using
There are more than 300 million smokers （三亿） in China, nearly one-third of the world's total.
About one in every 3 cigarettes smoked in the world is smoked in China. Nearly 2.3 trillion cigarettes were consumed in China in 2009 – more than in the other top-4 tobacco-consuming countries (Indonesia, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America) combined.
According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in China in 2010, nearly one-third (28.1%) of the population smokes, including 52.9% of men and 2.4% of women. More than half (52.7%) of smokers aged 20-34 years started smoking daily before the age of 20.
Approximately one million deaths every year in China are caused by tobacco – around one in six of all such deaths worldwide.
Approximately 100,000 people die as a result of exposure to second-hand smoke each year.
In other words, someone in China dies approximately every 30 seconds because of tobacco use; or around 3000 people every day.
If the prevalence of tobacco use in China is not reduced, the number of tobacco-related deaths every year in China will increase to 3 million by 2050.
Second-hand smoke is a major challenge for China.
In a typical week, 70% of adults are exposed to second-hand smoke in one environment or another.
Exposure to second-hand smoke kills approximately 100,000 people every year.